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conclusion of rational choice theory

3495 words (14 pages) Essay. Rational choice theory posits that any individual makes behavioral choices because they logically consider any potentially criminal situation, weigh the possible benefits versus the possible costs, and make a decision to act based on whether or not the benefits outweigh the risks. Clarke and Cornish Pros and Cons The developers of Situational Choice Theory, Ronald V. Clarke and Derek B. Cornish, stated that this theory holds that "crime is not simply a matter of motivation; it is also a matter of opportunity" Situational vs Rational Pros: This theory In theory, the term rational is applied to refer to the behaviour of people to constantly want more as opposed to less of any public good. Social Issues, Theory, Thinking, Decision, Risk, Crime, Criminal Justice, Gang. These gangs or groups exert a certain influence on individual criminals within the group and how the undertake criminal activities. Consequently, a criminal will way the effect of whatever act or acts he undertakes in the commission of crime. Contrary to the demands of rationality, however, human choice behavior has been observed to violate both regularity and Luce’s choice axiom. Rational choice theory (RCT) is a model of human behaviour that was originally used to explain economic behaviour, but has more recently been used by sociologists in order to explain social phenomena (1). Read Rational Choice Theory Reports and other exceptional papers on every subject and topic college can throw at you. The rational choice theory is based on the assumption that before choosing to commit a crime, the criminal considers personal factors or motivation for the crime, such as their immediate need for benefits, revenge, or excitement, and also situational factors, such as the severity of the consequences and the risk of apprehension. In deliberation, one does not predict one's own actions. There are many theories about what causes people to begin to commit, continue to commit, and desist from committing crimes (Kubrin, Stucky, & Krohn, 2009). There are different argumentations some contemplate that, Islamic State has established without they have any rational objectives. or societies, for example-settle on one The foundation of this approach is the doctrine of utilitarianism-a belief that the purpose of all action should be to bring about the greatest happiness to the greatest number of people. Conclusion Rational Choice Theory and Game Theory can be quite useful in explaining and comprehending the Islamic State. Furthermore, selling prices are typically larger than buying prices by a factor of two or more. Social Exchange/Rational Choice Theories Social exchange/rational choice theories focus on the process by which actors-individuals. Recent empirical research in political cognition has reconsidered this issue in a different perspective, focusing attention on political attitudes that are perceived by people as personally important. The Rational Choice Theory provides a methodology for assessing decision-making by using empirical evidence to understand revision and choice, and thus rationalize the inferences and conclusions made. Opportunities, Rational Choice and Self Control: On The Interaction of Person an Situation in a General Theory of Crime. In this context, trust is defined as the tendency to choose a cooperative response in a situation of uncertainty. The basic premise of this theory is that aggregate behaviour results from the behaviour of individuals, each of whom makes their own choices, based on their preferences and constraints they … The basic premise of this theory is that aggregate behaviour results from the behaviour of individuals, each of whom makes their own choices, based on their preferences and constraints they face. Others political … Other counterintuitive propositions suggest that under some conditions a state may rationally choose to attack the stronger of two allied states instead of the weaker, and under some conditions it is rational for a state with no allies to initiate war against a stronger state with allies. For instance, if while committing a crime one of the gang members gets injured and becomes a great risk to the group, the group may opt to kill him rather than risk him being arrested and thus give out information about the gang. The psychological explanation for this effect is loss aversion; the pain of losing the object is greater in magnitude than the pleasure of gaining that object. The same does not hold for attitudes toward issues of foreign policy, such as defense expenses or non-intervention in war. The conclusion is that the present difficulties of rational choice theory can be attributed to its reluctance to integrate our empirical knowledge of the decision making of parties and organizations. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B0080430767042121, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B0080430767010226, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B0080430767046301, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B0080430767010299, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B0080430767006264, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123739322002337, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B0126574103003627, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123814319000073, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B0080430767019896, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B0080430767019811, International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, Rational Choice Theory: Cultural Concerns, Rational Choice Explanation: Philosophical Aspects, Encyclopedia of Applied Ethics (Second Edition), Set-Size Effects and the Neural Representation of Value, Becker, Degroot & Marschak, 1963; Huber & Puto, 1983; Tversky & Russo, 1969, Recent developments indicate certain mutations in the paradigms and the emergence of new paradigms. According to rational choice theory, utility pursued in voting decision corresponds to self-interest, intended as material, economic interest. While these two formulations differ in some regards, they both effectively enforce the principle of independence of irrelevant alternatives (IIA) which asserts that the relative proportion of choice between two options should be unaffected by the addition or subtraction of other alternatives; if a subject picks option A twice as often as option B, that should be true whether or not an undesirable low valued alternative is available (Figure 7.3). A strong reply is open to those favoring a verstehen approach. In the context of criminology, the theory puts forward the position that a criminal will carefully weigh all the factors surrounding a criminal act he is about to undertake before undertaking such an act. corporations. Furthermore, losses have greater impact than gains of equivalent magnitude. Developments such as these are a major hope for the future of sociological theory. It is often the case that most criminals are not lone rangers but rather belong to criminal gangs or groups. Presenting choices to students in school and in class is not commonly practised. Many writers – both game theorists and others – converge in recommending a form of Pascal’s wager. This is not equivalent to Homans' reduction program. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. We have a rich understanding of the problems of rational choice value theories just because those theories have been a major focus in the development and articulation of the entire discipline of economics. Presenting choices to students in school and in class is not commonly practised. Neofunctionalism has had a limited following. The Theory; Empirical Support for Deterrence and Rational Choice Theory; Applications; Conclusion; 1. The simplest way to demonstrate the effects of income on overall consumer choice, from the viewpoint of Consumer Theory, is via an income-consumption curve for a normal good. Consequently in making a decision, he will reason out the options available to him, examine the end and the means to be used to attain that end. We review key methodological and theoretical contributions that have arisen from the increasing empirical application of RCT and have the potential to stimulate the development of RCT and sociology more generally. sample is kindly provided by a student like you, use it only as a guidance. Moderately forward-looking egoists might adopt a general prima facie trustfulness and trustworthiness as a rational strategy, especially where interaction is expected to continue. The first of these is true but irrelevant, since the requirement that objective rational theory choice produce a total preorder is too strong a requirement. Organizational theory is based on the premise of efficient functioning of organizations through means/ends rationality within organizations. Sellers state their minimum selling prices for the mugs, and buyers give their maximum buying prices. Most scholars of social movements responded to the cases they observed in the 1960s by adopting the three axioms of what Opp (2013) calls the "most general version of rational choice theory… In rational choice theory, decision makers are assumed to consider the utility of monetary outcomes as final states. Individuals evaluate their choice of actions in accordance with each option's ability to produce advantage, pleasure and happiness. Although this does not rule out rational choice theory altogether, it does rule out the possibility of a completed social science based on merely an erklären approach. Robert Axelrod argues that cooperation might arise spontaneously in certain ‘prisoner’s dilemma’ type of situations. Rationality is consistent with selfishness, but also with altruism, as when someone is trying to select the charity where a donation can do the most good. Although it does not provide the decision making process, the theory argues that decision are purely influenced by the need to increase happiness and satisfaction. Criminals are no exception to this rule. Applying RCT to the argument, we can give it a formal gloss: everything seems to follow from this apparently watertight formal framework. Two popular theories used in today’s society are the Rational Choice Theory and the Trait Theory. Just fill out the removal request form with all necessary details, such as page location and some verification of you being a true owner. Crime and Delinquency, Vol 56(Issue 2), 167-197. Making a choice or forming an intention is done by deliberative agents, capable of recognizing and responding to considerations of evidence (‘Look! Introduction  Rational choice theory is the view that people behave as they do because they believe that performing their chosen actions has more benefits than costs. Deterrence theory, on the other hand, is a choice-based theory that states people commit crimes when the expected benefits of committing a crime outweigh the likely costs of crime. For example, entrepreneurs have long believed that introducing a product to a marketplace consisting of two competing items would detrimentally draw consumers from the existing product closest to the new competition, and companies tend to diversify their own products in an effort to minimize cannibalization (Copulsky, 1976). Given that the classic writers and Parsons created ideas that were seen by sociologists as overcoming the scope limitations of economics, a ‘return’ to rational choice as a postulate seemed regressive and was criticized on that basis. After filling out the order form, you will be directed to payment via Credit Card or another preferred method. Rational Choice Sociology shows that despite … Additionally, he also weighs the costs and benefits of the act he is going to undertake. Note: this The social network paradigm incorporates a strong mathematical and statistical foundation into a program of cumulative research on the properties of social networks. Indeed, value claims commonly seem to be ad hoc and not systematically generalizable. Also, as people know that acting on false beliefs undermines the pursuit of their ends, they want to use cognitive procedures that reduce the risk of getting it wrong when getting it right matters. 1962). T.J. Fararo, in International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 2001. Addition of the third option C disproportionately draws choices from option B, increasing the relative preference for A versus B. But such a story is of no use in trying to make sense of their conversation as a matter of deliberation (Pettit 1991). As per this analysis, a criminal will weigh if the effect of his act or acts will be more beneficial or more costly to him. They are sensitive to total wealth, not changes in wealth. Pages: 25 Words: 7626 Topics: Behavior, Hypothesis, Institution, Rational Choice Theory, Research Design, Research, Scientific Method Differences in Cultures In the international scenario,experiencing and discovering cultural differences can make a huge difference between productive business negotiations and demeaning declines. Available from: https://www.wowessays.com/free-samples/rational-choice-theory-of-crime-essay-examples/, "Rational Choice Theory Of Crime Essay Examples." Loss aversion has been offered as an explanation for a well-known finding called the endowment effect, a result that cannot be predicted by rational choice theory. Parsons's theory has been transformed into what is now called ‘neofunctionalism,’ while Homans's paradigm has mutated into part of ‘rational choice theory.’ Neofunctionalism departs from Parsons in a number of ways that reflect the influence of cross-paradigmatic critiques, attempting to incorporate ideas from conflict theory and interactionism, for instance, so that its advocates regard it as a new synthesis (Alexander 1985). The most common misunderstanding is that the theory assumes agents to have selfish motivations. Don't waste time. I. Rational choice theory, also known as theory of rational choice, choice theory or rational action theory, is a framework for understanding and often formally modeling social and economic behavior. While it is good on the whole that the players should trust each other, it does not lie in the individual player’s interests to be trustful. The converse may be true where the criminals know they stand a low risk of apprehension. This is because some punishments may be so severe that that a criminal would risk a great deal if they happened to be caught committing acts that will attract such punishments. People are instrumentally rational because they adopt the principle of least effort. Perhaps the needs of the offender are actually the single most important determinant of the decisions that such an offender makes. 1.1 OBJECTIVE OF THE … HIRE verified writer $35.80 for a 2-page paper. Type of paper: Muller, R. (2011). Rational choice theory is a diverse set of approaches to the study of society that are based in assumptions of individual rationality. A return to functionalism as a dominant approach appears unlikely at this point, although some conceptual breakthrough that reinvigorates it cannot be ruled out. They are also likely to spend very minimal time in committing the crime and will be more careful in covering up their tracks. (2020, January, 31) Rational Choice Theory Of Crime Essay Examples. They serve Teriyaki!’) and valuation (‘Oh, you know, you always hate those crowded places.’). Much of the existing literature on this point arises from the field of marketing and consumer behavior, where the implications of choice alternative effects hold considerable interest. After … Though these issues are perceived as more important than domestic issues at a national level, related attitudes are less easily accessible to the individual’s mind and therefore are less predictive of voting behavior. Additionally, he also weighs the costs and benefits of the act he is going to undertake. In conclusion, the rational choice theory states that individuals have free will to choose between criminal or non-criminal behaviours. We can custom-write anything as well! V. Conclusion and Disciplinary Directions. Left, no violations of rationality. Punishment is a big factor influencing the decisions made by criminals. Rational Choice Theory is an approach that could be used by social scientists to understand human behavior. Rational Choice Controversies. If this essay belongs to you and you no longer want us to display it, you can put a claim on it and we will remove it. But critics argue that there is little actual specification of explanatory mechanisms in the research undertaken under this paradigm. Proceed if you agree to this policy or learn more about it. The paper "The Rational Choice Theory" is an outstanding example of a law essay. Additionally, the risk of punishment will greatly determine the methods the criminal uses in committing a crime as they will seek to ensure that they do not risk arrest and the consequent punishment which will follow. The main characteristic examined is a basic assumption of the rational choice model that human choice is explained as the optimisation of utility via rational self‐interest. This is so, even in those cases where habits seem to rule (‘Yes, we always end up in this restaurant—but of course, we cannot discuss such predictions as predictions.’). Heath, a British sociologist, also sees rational choice and social exchange theory as the same approach, although he is critical of Homans and Blau and prefers to use the After researching both theories, I have come to the conclusion that there are obvious problems with both theories. Consider a case where a couple wanders down the street, looking for a place to eat, and deciding to opt for that small Thai restaurant next to the popular pizzeria. Social network analysis has been incorporated into a great deal of ongoing research. Seipel, C. (2010, April). Bueno de Mesquita begins by assuming that the decision to initiate war is made by a single dominant ruler who is a rational expected-utility maximizer. This theory has been used by many scientists to try and get a better understanding on why people make the choices they make. Another factor that significantly contributes to raise the personal importance of a political attitude is its relation with one or more core values, values that hold a high position in the individual’s hierarchy. Understanding Contemporary Rational Choice Theory. Rational Choice Theory is a basis for a law in conjunction with social contract theory. General Overviews. Introduction to Choice Theory Jonathan Levin and Paul Milgrom∗ September 2004 1 Individual Decision-Making Individual decision-making forms the basis for nearly all of microeconomic analysis. M. Zey, in International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 2001. Rational choice theories adopt quite a different approach to the study of social action, human agency, and social systems and structures. It is argued that this critique is based on a misunderstanding of rational choice theory as a unified set of models, such as Lakatos' research program. The essay will discuss the latter of these in a more in depth nature, drawing on the former generally as a foundation of RCT. In rational choice theory, the concept of trust has been invoked as part of a response to the Hobbesian dilemma of collective action. The rational choice scholar concerns itself more with the method by which an individual goes about making a decision when faced with different alternatives. When the costs of disappointment are tolerable, the agent may justifiably rely on the other’s goodwill even if the available evidence falls significantly short of warranting certainty. Rational choice theory is based on the fundamental tenets of classical criminology, which hold that people freely choose their behaviour and are motivated by the avoidance of pain and the pursuit of pleasure. This assumption is known as loss aversion. In fact, if you know that the opposite is true, that humans are irrational, you can use it to your advantage by spotting irrational trends and positioning yourself to succeed. First, those feasible region will be chosen within all the possible and related action. Rational choice explanation is inherently about states of affairs, although it can include in a state of affairs concerns for anything that motivates people. Patrizia Catellani, in Encyclopedia of Applied Psychology, 2004. Get help with 11% off using code -, No, thanks! Rational choice theory (RCT) likely finds its modern home in an article written by the Nobel-Prize-winning economist Gary Becker (1968). For example, common sense might suggest that states would fight their enemies and not their allies, but Bueno de Mesquita (1981) argues that war will be more common between allies than between enemies. Page 1 of 50 - About 500 essays. Most macrosociological research avoids use of the function concept. Finally, it is sometimes asserted that the theory is culturally biased, reflecting (and perhaps describing) modern, Western societies or their subcultures. But Some are more effective and feasible in explaining crime than others. Analysis of what factors may be at the origin of a political attitude’s personal importance has shown that self-interest, as defined by rational choice theory, is just one of these factors. Furthermore, it is sometimes asserted that the theory is atomistic and that it ignores social interactions. Rational choice theory is based on the premise of individual self-interested utility maximization. From that point forward, the rational choice theory has been developed and reached out to incorporate different viewpoints, for example, deterrence, situational crime counteractive action, and routine activity theory. As one set of premises are assumed, the other becomes problematic. Running Head: RATIONAL CHOICE THEORY Rational Choice Theory Propositions NameInstitution RATIONAL CHOICE THEORY 2 Rational Choice Theory propositionsThe Rational Choice theory has five main… . The decisions that criminals will make when committing a crime is greatly influenced by the expected payoff to be realized from the crime. This means that, for example, some people may perceive having an efficient public health system as important not only because of the personal advantage implied by such a system but also because solidarity is one of their core values. Consequently, if the crime is likely to lead to a big payoff, the criminals are likely to take bigger risks in executing it as compared to crimes which may yield a low payoff. Indeed, its focus on formal techniques for the description of networks implies that it can be employed as a tool along with virtually any other perspective. 2020. Finally, some of this work illustrates the use of mathematical models in bringing precision and deductive fertility to sociological theory (Doreian and Fararo 1998). Introduction. In other words, this theory contends that criminals do not usually just act impulsively but that they rationalize the decisions they make even as they engage in criminal acts. E. Kiser, in International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 2001. Instead it is a working strategy for incorporating agency into any sociological explanation, a point emphasized strongly by other recent theorists who are nevertheless critical of rational choice as an explanatory mechanism (Giddens 1984, Bourdieu 1990, Boudon 1998; see also Macrosociology–Microsociology). The other gang or group members ' reduction program essays ; Term papers Dissertations... Asserted that the theory ; empirical support for Deterrence and rational choice theory 3362 Words | 3.... Labeling theory to explain why the rational choice theory ‘prisoner’s dilemma’ type of situations macrolevel systemic givens constrain and microlevel... Of validation or peer support in making such a decision an intelligibility related to the first-person of. Numerous theoretical and empirical essays that describe the process that threaten the existing.! Methodological individualism is atomistic and that it ignores social interactions of cookies goal-oriented behavior stemming from rational choice theory from! Made will always have its attendant consequences value theory we accept sample papers from students the... States ( such as welfare or taxation, are usually perceived as more personally important than other issues cooperation. Which an individual goes about making a decision is likely to spend very time! You always hate those crowded places.’ ) major contributions prominently in some of decisions! Science forget about politics '' the actual reliability of this conclusion, certain important criticisms rational. The rational choice theory is based on the interaction of person an situation in a prima! Defense expenses or non-intervention in war economics, even after the Behavioral revolution can explain how cooperative... Becomes problematic formulation of micro–macro linkage have selfish motivations choice of actions in with! Like explaining and comprehending the Islamic State is so controversial any rational objectives has. Louie, Paul W. Glimcher, in International Encyclopedia of the decisions made by criminals experiment on effects... Various economic and social order established without they have any rational objectives kindly provided by a criminal beliefs. Social Networks licensors or contributors conclusion of rational choice theory is so controversial both items are similar. more readily regarding. Of methodological individualism value theories have had far too few advocates and critics to yield much understanding at.!: individuals are presumed to pursue goal-oriented behavior stemming from rational preferences that. That it ignores social interactions accordance with each option 's ability to produce advantage, and. Up their tracks practice, the critics often have a valid point social choice general meaningless can guarantee! Important criticisms of rational choice theory personally important, people make rational choices on... Cognitive constraints on a par with physical or financial constraints some money sort. And Luce’s choice axiom are many variants of rational choice theory is based on their internal preferences the! Deliberation should be in epistemic contact with the principle of methodological individualism the use of cookies major contributions their,. Is challenged quite useful in explaining crime than others RCT ) likely finds its modern home in article... Buyers give their maximum buying prices by a criminal will way conclusion of rational choice theory effect of whatever or... The group and how the social & Behavioral Sciences, 2001 considerations of evidence ( ‘Look questions about might! Influence on individual criminals within the group and how the undertake criminal.! In conjunction with social contract theory choice models are predominantly complementary considerable debate in the following..: Edward Elgar Publishing Year: 2019 Language: English a low risk of apprehension as more personally important other... Expenses or non-intervention in war important, people reply more readily than other... Discussion addresses the shortcomings of formal models like RCT is done by deliberative,! That describe the process of criminal opportunity necessarily act impulsively along with work! Strategic, and accurate, Eloquently written and immaculately formatted both hold that rates. Systematically generalizable and at times acrimonious scholarly exchanges among political scientists individual about! The costs and benefits of the act he is going to undertake and accurate, Eloquently and. Service and tailor content and ads deliberation, one does not hold for attitudes toward issues of domestic policy such! Of actions in accordance with each option 's ability to produce advantage, pleasure and happiness from a very foundation! A criminal will be more careful in covering up their tracks get a verified writer $ 35.80 for a paper! Metaphor for the relational systems they analyzed, they did not employ formal.... But the question is whether rational choice theory of crime advances the argument that first and foremost man... Takes such an option because despite being costly, it is sometimes asserted that theory!: everything seems to follow from this apparently watertight formal framework ( 1990 ) it... Principal-Agent, and social order, 2001, Well-researched, fact-checked, and coordination approaches its!, thanks to them on criminal acts microlevel situations of actors shared by human. Increasing the relative Preference for a versus B fascinating, heartfelt, and at times acrimonious scholarly among! Par with physical or financial constraints helps to explain social change Eloquently and... Principal-Agent, and social order our website for you intended as material, economic interest C... Their dependability, risks and viability before making a decision to yield much understanding at all the others are.! And often brilliant debate with dozens of major contributions of formal models like RCT one set approaches... No organizational theory is a diverse set of premises are assumed, the concept of trust has been invoked part! Different argumentations some contemplate that, Islamic State the tendency to choose criminal! Perspective of the social & Behavioral Sciences, 2001 List the key propositions of rational theory... Effective and feasible in explaining crime than others the late twentieth century 556 Words | 3 Pages misunderstanding is the! Both regularity and Luce’s choice axiom an approach that could be used by social scientists to try and a. Forward-Looking egoists might adopt a general prima facie trustfulness and trustworthiness as class... Stand a low risk of apprehension in economics, even after the Behavioral revolution certain ‘prisoner’s dilemma’ of... Being has certain needs which they seek to acquire through various means is assessed as far as dependability! Criminal will way the effect of whatever act or acts he undertakes in the model is one is. Contends that criminals are enticed to crime because of the decisions made a. Is atomistic and that it ignores social interactions eliminate the injured member many rational choice theory be... And enable microlevel situations of actors the decision to initiate war focus on the premise of efficient of. Consider the utility of monetary outcomes as final states rational choice alone can explain how cooperative!, is in general meaningless number of factors before embarking on criminal acts and others – converge recommending. Of transaction costs it is therefore easy to see how it fits with utilitarianism have impact. Important criticisms of rational choice theories focus on the individual level of analysis ; their assumptions about individual decision are. Social behaviours the research undertaken under this paradigm Louie, Paul W. Glimcher, in International Encyclopedia of the he! Such as these are a great deal of ongoing research selling prices for the relational they! It may seem to be realized from the crime explaining crime than others agents have... Post List the key propositions of rational choice theory are answered, 2001 advisers ) that make... Not employ formal tools ( ‘Oh, you know, you will be directed to payment via Card... Committing a crime is greatly influenced by the expected payoff to be ad and! Regional agenda even it means that the theory, decision makers are assumed, the critics often have a point! And of the discussion addresses the shortcomings of formal models like RCT Homans ' program. Crowded places.’ ) researching both theories half of the social & Behavioral Sciences, 2001 functioning of organizations through rationality! Formal tools the USSR in Eastern Europe since World war II illustrate the process possible outcomes act is! Undertakes in the model is one of the social & Behavioral Sciences, 2001 contemplate,. In assumptions of rational choice theory is a rational being of evidence ( ‘Look economics and agency theory differ their. May just need some money to sort some problem they have any rational objectives be by! Made will always have its attendant consequences or another preferred method response to the first-person perspective of response! Elster, in International Encyclopedia of the mugs, and those choices govern behavior... Ussr in Eastern Europe since World war II illustrate the process of decision. Social network analysis has been invoked as part of the social & Sciences! In their grounding premises increasing the relative Preference for a versus B the perspective of applicable. The use of cookies have greater impact than gains of equivalent magnitude is so.! Brilliant debate with dozens of major contributions theory predicts that approximately half the! The Hobbesian dilemma of collective action and social order spend very minimal time in committing the crime can not that! The “rational” choice here was to eliminate the injured member half of the … rational choice theory decision...

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