the close relationship between Neolithic populations in Ukraine and Portugal) and therefore lack any historical meaning, any putative genetic relationship must be consistent with geographical plausibility and have the support of other evidence. , It has been asserted that the textiles found with the mummies are of an early European textile type based on close similarities to fragmentary textiles found in salt mines in Austria, dating from the second millennium BCE. Victor H. Mair's team concluded that the mummies are Caucasoid, likely speakers of Indo-European languages such as the Tocharians.. In her book, "The Mummies of Urumchi", Elizabeth Wayland Barber told about this groundbreaking discovery. “Since 1993, there have been a variety of samples taken from many mummies from diverse sites.” Professor Mair told me, “we’ve looked at both mitochondrial and Y chromosome DNA. They had long reddish-blond hair, European features and didn't appear to be the ancestors of modern-day Chinese people. The scientists extracted enough material to suggest the Tarim Basin was continually inhabited from 2000 BCE to 300 BCE and preliminary results indicate the people, rather than having a single origin, originated from Europe, Mesopotamia, Indus Valley and other regions yet to be determined. (2010). According to the researchers, these mummies are ancient Caledonia tribe in central Scotland and was buried in that place for 3,000 years. They are also at the center of another ongoing dispute: Turkish speaking Uighurs, who have lived in the Tarim Basin since 842 AD, are using the mummies as justification for independence from the Chinese state. , The Beauty of Loulan's hair colour has been described as auburn. , From the evidence available, we have found that during the first 1,000 years after the Loulan Beauty, the only settlers in the Tarim Basin were Caucasoid. Li-Liu; The Chinese Neolithic, Cambridge University Press, 2005.  The R1a1 lineage suggests a proximity of this population with groups related to the Andronovo culture, i.e. The supplying of Tarim Basin jade to China from ancient times is well established, according to Liu (2001): "It is well known that ancient Chinese rulers had a strong attachment to jade. National Geographic, 189(3), 2-43. :115–127 The attributed author, Guan Zhong, described the Yuzhi 禺氏, or Niuzhi 牛氏, as a people from the north-west who supplied jade to the Chinese from the nearby mountains of Yuzhi 禺氏 at Gansu. “There were several waves coming at different times and from different places,’” he said. This mission revealed the existence, from the 3rd millennium BC, of populations in the vast Taklamakan Desert, where all traces of life had disappeared. Mair, Victor H., "Mummies of the Tarim Basin,". Tocharian is attested in documents between the 3rd and 9th centuries CE, although the first known epigraphic evidence dates to the 6th century CE.  The rough shape of her clothes and the lice in her hair suggest she lived a difficult life. Taklamakan Desert is located in the center of Tarim Basin, in the south of Xinjiang Province Taklamakan Desert is 337600 square km ( 1000km long from east to west and 400km wide from north to south), the largest in China and second largest desert in the world. "However, within China a small group of ethnic separatists have taken advantage of this opportunity to stir up trouble and are acting like buffoons. , When the Loulan Beauty was discovered, it caused excitement among the local Uyghur population of Xinjiang. Xinjiang. The Taklamakan desert has given up hundreds of desiccated corpses in the past 25 years, and archaeologists say the discoveries in the Tarim Basin are some of the most significant finds in … The Chinese official Zhang Qian, who visited Bactria and Sogdiana in 126 BCE, made the first known Chinese report on many regions west of China. By the 1st Century CE, the Kushan Empire had expanded significantly and may have annexed part of the Tarim Basin. Takla Makan Desert, Chinese (Pinyin) Taklimakan Shamo or (Wade-Giles romanization) T’a-k’o-la-ma-kan Sha-mo, great desert of Central Asia and one of the largest sandy deserts in the world. The Tarim Basin is one of the most remote (far from oceans and seas along whose littorals early humans travelled) and last populated places on Earth. ", B. E. Hemphill's biodistance analysis of cranial metrics (as cited in Larsen 2002 and Schurr 2001) has questioned the identification of the Tarim Basin population as European, noting that the earlier population has close affinities to the Indus Valley population, and the later population with the Oxus River valley population. (19/4/2005). , Han Kangxin, who examined the skulls of 302 mummies, found the closest relatives of the earlier Tarim Basin population in the populations of the Afanasevo culture situated immediately north of the Tarim Basin and the Andronovo culture that spanned Kazakhstan and reached southwards into West Central Asia and the Altai. Hemphill & Mallory (2004) confirm a second Caucasian physical type at Alwighul (700–1 BCE) and Krorän (200 CE) different from the earlier one found at Qäwrighul (1800 BCE) and Yanbulaq (1100–500 BCE): This study confirms the assertion of Han  that the occupants of Alwighul and Krorän are not derived from proto-European steppe populations, but share closest affinities with Eastern Mediterranean populations. Though modern Westerners tend to identify this type of hat as the headgear of a witch, there is evidence that these pointed hats were widely worn by both women and men in some Central Asian tribes.  As a result of the arid conditions and exceptional preservation, tattoos have been identified on mummies from several sites around the Tarim Basin, including Qäwrighul, Yanghai, Shengjindian, Shanpula (Sampul), Zaghunluq, and Qizilchoqa. Clearly, as time passed, the Tarim Basin became a cultural mixing pot. Most of these mummies were found on the eastern end of the Tarim Basin (around the area of Lopnur, Subeshi near Turpan, Loulan, Kumul), or along the southern edge of the Tarim Basin ( Bronze metallurgy in China originated in what is referred to as the Erlitou (Wade–Giles: Erh-li-t'ou) period, which some historians argue places it within the range of dates controlled by the Shang dynasty. A 23-poem sequence on the Beauty of Loulan appears in the Canadian poet Kim Trainor's Karyotype (2015). Two of the earliest Takla Makan mummies come from the area around Loulan; however, they predate the city by 2000 years. A. While analysis of the DNA of the mummies is compatible with European DNA types, this does not mean they were direct European migrants. Since that was significantly later than the discovery of bronze in Mesopotamia, bronze technology could have been imported, rather than being discovered independently in China. According to Dr. Zhou, who conducted the research, the two groups probably intermarried before reaching the Tarim Basin, indicating that it was just part of a much longer, ongoing migration. Yale University Press, 1982. Chang, K. C.: "Studies of Shang Archaeology", pp.  Some Uyghurs have named her the mother of the nation because they say the Uyghurs are her descendants. , Chinese historian Ji Xianlin says China "supported and admired" research by foreign experts into the mummies. One man, three women and a baby. "The Dead Tell a Tale China Doesn't Care to Listen To", "A meeting of civilisations: The mystery of China's celtic mummies", "Evidence that a West-East admixed population lived in the Tarim Basin as early as the early Bronze Age", Mitochondrial DNA analysis of human remains from the Yuansha site in Xinjiang, "Analysis of ancient human mitochondrial DNA from the Xiaohe cemetery: Insights into prehistoric population movements in the Tarim Basin, China", "Analysis of ancient human mitochondrial DNA from the Xiaohe cemetery: insights into prehistoric population movements in the Tarim Basin, China", "Teaching Chinese Archaeology, Part Two — NGA", "Ancient Mummies of the Tarim Basin | Expedition Magazine". As early as the mid-first millennium BCE the Yuezhi engaged in the jade trade, of which the major consumers were the rulers of agricultural China. Takla Makan. Also found were haplogroups common in modern populations from East Asia: B5, D and G2a. , Since then China has prohibited foreign scientists from conducting research on the mummies. The Takla Makan mummies provide controversial evidence that China’s northwestern Xinjiang province was once settled by early Europeans. The Taklamakan Desert has very little water, therefore it is hazardous to cross. Popular accounts claim that Takla Makan means "go in and you will never come out". Scientific analysis of the human remains revealed that the mummies can be dated as far back as 1900BC to 200AD. The Beauty of Loulan was surrounded by funerary gifts. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (. The mummies are found in cemeteries located along the southern and eastern edges of the Taklamakan (one of the world’s largest and driest deserts), which sits in the center of the Tarim Basin. The Taklamakan Desert’s hot dry sand and arid land provides excellent conditions for mummification. The Subeshi headgear is likely an ethnic badge or a symbol of position in the society. We do have some conclusive evidence of Caucasian origin.”. 6–7, 1. The mummies show that, at one time, the Tarim Basin was a melting pot of incomers from different lands and cultures long before the Uighurs and later Han Chinese settled the area. Some of the peoples of the Western Regions were described in Chinese sources as having full beards, red or blond hair, deep-set blue or green eyes and high noses. 1900Bc to 200AD is unknown, although South Siberia is likely due lung... For instance, the Beauty of Loulan appears in the Taklamakan Desert ’ s several. That James Churchward ( 1851-1936 ) claimed he had found evidence of tattooing on mummies found in the Taklamakan.. They say the Uyghurs are her descendants preserved mummies were discovered in the late 1980 ’ s taklamakan desert mummies Xinjiang was... 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